[OpenAjaxSecurity] Blog entry attacks W3C access control spec

Howard Weingram weingram at tibco.com
Thu Aug 30 04:24:26 PDT 2007


Note that if we are thinking about isolating modules within the 
web page (son of sandbox), then access permissions would 
need to be specified per module; just because a script in 
module #1 can invoke a web service, doesn't mean that 
a script in module #2 should be allowed to invoke that 
web service. 
 
I realize that the issues discussed in the post are much more
fundamental than this, however. 
 
Best Regards,
Howard


________________________________

	From: security-bounces at openajax.org
[mailto:security-bounces at openajax.org] On Behalf Of Jon Ferraiolo
	Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2007 1:18 AM
	To: security at openajax.org
	Subject: [OpenAjaxSecurity] Blog entry attacks W3C access
control spec
	
	

	Being on vacation this week, I haven't had time to do anything
but skim this article yet, but what I saw from skimming re-inforced my
concerns. It would be great if others on this task force could read
through the blog and the access control spec and volunteer your
analysis.
	
	Jon
	
	
	
http://www.gnucitizen.org/blog/i-dont-think-that-you-understand-firefox3
-vulnerable-by-design
	
	
	I don't think that you understand! - Firefox3 Vulnerable by
Design
	published: August 25th, 2007
	  

	I was going to through the latest entries in my feed reader,
when I stumbled upon Mozilla Aims At Cross-Site Scripting With FF3
<http://www.internetnews.com/security/article.php/3695731> . Wow, this
is interesting. So I clicked on the link and started reading. The more I
read the more I knew it was a big screw up from the start. 

			Mozilla is aiming to put an end to XSS attacks
in its upcoming Firefox 3 browser. The Alpha 7 development release
includes support for a new W3C working draft specification that is
intended is secure XML over HTTP requests (often referred to as XHR)
which are often the culprit when it comes to XSS attacks. XHR is the
backbone of Web 2.0 enabling a more dynamic web experience with remote
data.

	Uh? What is that? How is that going to prevent XSS. But wait, it
is getting even more interesting. 

			"Cross site XMLHttpRequest will enable web
authors to more easily and safely create Web mashups," Mike Schroepfer,
Mozilla's vice president of engineering, told internetnews.com.
			A typical XSS attack vector is one in which a
malicious Web site reads the credentials from another that a user has
visited. The new specification could well serve to limit that type of
attack though it is still incumbent upon Web developers to be careful
with their trusted data.

	First of all, this technology is not going to prevent XSS. This
is guaranteed. Second, it may only increase the attack surface since
developers will abuse this technology as it is the case with Adobe Flash
crossdomain.xml. And finally, the proposed W3C specifications
<http://www.w3.org/TR/access-control/>  are insecure from start. Let's
see why this is the case. 

	The specification describes a mechanism where browsers can
provide cross-domain communication (something that is currently
restricted by the same domain policies) via the all mighty JavaScript
XMLHttpRequest object. In order to grant access to external scripts you
can do that by using either of the following ways: 

	Content-Access-Control header 

	The idea is that the developer provides an additional header in
the response. Here is an example: 

	Content-Access-Control: allow <*.example.org> exclude
<*.public.example.org>
	Content-Access-Control: allow <webmaster.public.example.org> 

	So, as long as the response contains a header that specifies
that the requesting site, which hosts the script, can access the
content, no domain access restrictions will be applied. The bad news for
this approach is that there is an attack vector known as CRLF Injection.
If any part of the user supplied input is used as part of the response
headers, attackers can inject additional header to grant access. Here is
a scenario where this attack can be applied: 

	Case study 1: MySpace implements a new AJAX interface for the
user contact list section. The list is delivered as XML. This REST
service contains a couple of parameters. One of them is used as part of
the headers. Although by default attackers cannot read the XML file due
to the same origin policies, now they can trick the browser into letting
them do so via CRLF injection. The attack looks like the following: 

	var q = new XMLHttpRequest();
	q.open('GET',
'http://myspace.com/path/to/contact/rest/service.xml?someparam=blab%0D%0
AContent-Access-Control: allow <*>');
	q.onreadystatechange = function () {
	 // read the document here
	};
	q.send() 

	Ups!. This is how we tricked the browser into believing that the
above site grants us with full access to the user private contact list.
But wait, this is not all. I think that W3C forgot about the infamous
TRACE and TRACK methods and the vulnerabilities that are associated with
them. Cross-site Tracing attacks are considered sort of theoretical
because there is no real scenario in which attackers can take advantage
of them. On way to exploit XST, is to have access to the target content
via XSS, but if you have XSS then what's the point. However, if the new
spec is implemented, now we have a whole new attack vector we need to
worry about. So, we are not really fixing the XSS problem, we are in
fact contributing to it. Here is a demonstration Cross-site tracing
attack against MySpace again. 

	var q = new XMLHttpRequest();
	q.open('TRACE',
'http://myspace.com/path/to/contact/rest/service.xml');
	q.setRequestHeader('Content-Access-Control', 'allow <*>'); // we
say to the server to echo back this header
	q.onreadystatechange = function () {
	 // read the document here
	};
	q.send(); 

	That was too easy. I hope that FF3 restricts the XMLHttpRequest
object to set Content-Access-Control header, but then I guess we can use
Flash or Java to do the same or at least somehow circumvent FF header
restrictions. I don't know. 

	And finally I would like you to pay attention on the fact that
the browser verifies about the script access control after the request
is delivered. Uh?. Haven't you learned? CSRF!!! This means that now we
can make arbitrary requests to any resource with surgical precision.
Port scanning from JavaScript will become as stable as it can get. Why?
you may ask. Here is a demo: 

	try {
	 var q = new XMLHttpRequest();
	 q.open('GET', 'http://<some host>:<port of interest>');
	 q.onreadystatechange = function () {
	   if (q.readyState == 3) {
	     // port is open
	   }
	 };
	 q.send();
	} catch(e) {} 

	This port scanning method does not work today, but it will if
you implement the W3C standard. With the current browser specifications,
the above code will crash and burn at q.send(); step. It won't fire a
request unless the origin matches with the current one. However, with
the new spec on place, the q.send(); step will fire. Then, while loading
the document, the onreadystatechange event callback will be called
several times for states 0 (uninitialized), 1 (open), 2 (sent), 3
(receiving). At stage 4 (loaded), the request will fail with a security
exception. However, we've successfully passed stage 3 (receiving) which
has acknowledged that the remote resource is present. Here is a simple
script that can be used to port scan with the new W3C spec. It should be
super accurate: 

	function checkPort(host, port, callback) {
	 try {
	   var q = new XMLHttpRequest();
	   q.open('GET', host + ':' + port);
	   q.onreadystatechange = function () {
	     if (q.readyState == 3) {
	       callback(host, port, 'open');
	     }
	   };
	   q.send();
	 } catch(e) {
	   // check the exception type... {
	   callback(host, port, 'closed');
	   // }
	 }
	}
	
	for (var i = 0; i < 1024: i++) {
	 scanPort('target.com', i, function (host, port, status) {
	   console.log(host, port, status); // do something with the
result
	 });
	}
	<?access-control?> processing instruction 

	Ok. Bad news. But check this out. W3C standard suggests that we
can embed the access control mechanism into the XML document itself.
Here is an example: 

	<?access-control allow="*"?>
	<list>
	 <email>joe at avarage.com</email>
	</list> 

	This cross domain access control mechanism is also subjective to
TRACK/TRACE and CSRF (PortScanning and State detection) vulnerabilities.
Luckily, it is not vulnerable to CRLF Injection. However, in case the
internal FF or IE XML parsing engine is vulnerable to some buffer
overflow, we will be screwed big time. But this is another story and I
guess it requires more research and of course the presence of a software
vulnerability. Keep in mind that I am just elaborating here. 

	In conclusion 

	For God's sake, do not implement the standard. Can't you see? It
will open a can of worms (literally). And please, don't say that this
specification will prevent XSS. It doesn't? I see how the W3C spec will
enable developers to go further and do even more exciting on-line stuff
but does it worth the price? You tell me, cuz I don't know what the heck
your have been thinking. 

	WARNING: None of the above attacks have been verified. The
conclusion about possible vulnerabilities withing the specifications
have been drawn by simply looking at the W3C working draft. However,
given the fact that Firefox follows specifications to the extend no
other browser vendor does, there is a high chance that the
vulnerabilities mentioned above may work. Thank you.

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